13. ArcEngine Geometry 对象浅析
发布于 4 年前 作者 admin 3770 次浏览 来自 技术
  1. Geometry 对象浅析

ArcEngine Geometry库定义了基本几何图形的矢量表达形式,顶级的几何图形有Points、Multipoints、Polylines、Polygons、 Multipatches,Geodatabase和绘图系统使用这些几何图形来定义其他各种形状的特征和图形,提供了编辑图形的操作方法和地图符号系统符号化特征数据的途径。   Geometry库中几个核心类和接口构成了Geometry对象的基本框架。   GeometryEnvironment
  GeometryEnvironment提供了从不同的输入、设置或获取全局变量来创建几何图形的方法,以便控制geometry方法的行为。GeometryEnvironment对象是一个单例对象。 以下为引用的内容:

public IPolyline TestGeometryEnvironment()
{ 
ISpatialReferenceFactory spatialReferenceFactory = new SpatialReferenceEnvironmentClass();
//Create a projected coordinate system and define its domain, resolution, and x,y tolerance.
IspatialReferenceResolution spatialReferenceResolution = spatialReferenceFactory.CreateProjectedCoordinateSystem((int)esriSRProjCSType.esriSRProjCS_NAD1983UTM_11N) as ISpatialReferenceResolution;
spatialReferenceResolution.ConstructFromHorizon();
ISpatialReferenceTolerance spatialReferenceTolerance = spatialReferenceResolution as ISpatialReferenceTolerance;
spatialReferenceTolerance.SetDefaultXYTolerance();
ISpatialReference spatialReference = spatialReferenceResolution as ISpatialReference;

//Create an array of WKSPoint structures starting in the middle of the x,y domain of the 
//projected coordinate system.
double xMin;
double xMax; 
double yMin;
double yMax;
spatialReference.GetDomain(out xMin, out xMax, out yMin, out yMax);
double xFactor = (xMin + xMax) * 0.5;
double yFactor = (yMin + yMax) * 0.5;
WKSPoint[] wksPoints = new WKSPoint[10];
for (int i = 0; i < wksPoints.Length; i++) 
{ 
    wksPoints[i].X = xFactor + i;
    wksPoints[i].Y = yFactor + i;
}
IPointCollection4 pointCollection = new PolylineClass(); 
IGeometryBridge2 geometryBridge = new GeometryEnvironmentClass();
geometryBridge.AddWKSPoints(pointCollection, ref wksPoints);
IPolyline polyline = pointCollection as IPolyline;
polyline.SpatialReference = spatialReference;  
return polyline;

} new GeometryEnvironmentClass仅仅是创建了一个指向已存在的GeometryEnvironmentClass的引用。注意 IGeometryBridge2接口的使用,addWKSPoints方法将WKSPoint二维点添加到PointCollection中,用于构建 path、ring、polyline、polygon,或增加新点到Multipoint、TriangleFan、TriangleStrip。在 Geometry库中,除了IGeometryBridge2还有IGeometryBridge接口,后者继承了前者,增加了一些编辑功能(添加点、插入点、重置点、分段等)。   GeometryBag   GeometryBag是支持IGeometry接口的几何对象引用的集合,任何几何对象都可以通过IGeometryCollection接口添加到 GeometryBag中,但是在使用拓扑操作的时候,需要注意不同类型的几何类型可能会有相互不兼容的情况。在向GeometryBag中添加几何对象的时候,GeometryBag对象需要指定空间参考,添加到其中的几何对象均拥有和GeometryBag对象一样的空间参考。 以下为引用的内容:

private IPolygon GeometryBag_Example(IFeatureClass featureClass)
{ 
//Check input objects.
if (featureClass == null)
{ 
    return null;
}
IGeoDataset geoDataset = featureClass as IGeoDataset;
ISpatialFilter queryFilter = new SpatialFilterClass(); 
//Set the properties of the spatial filter here.
IGeometry geometryBag = new GeometryBagClass();
//Define the spatial reference of the bag before adding geometries to it. 
geometryBag.SpatialReference = geoDataset.SpatialReference;
//Use a nonrecycling cursor so each returned geometry is a separate object. 
IFeatureCursor featureCursor = featureClass.Search(queryFilter, false); 
IGeometryCollection geometryCollection = geometryBag as IGeometryCollection;
IFeature currentFeature = featureCursor.NextFeature();
while (currentFeature != null) 
{ 
    //Add a reference to this feature's geometry into the bag.
    //You don't specify the before or after geometry (missing),
    //so the currentFeature.Shape IGeometry is added to the end of the geometryCollection.
    object missing = Type.Missing; 
    geometryCollection.AddGeometry(currentFeature.Shape, ref missing, ref missing);
    currentFeature = featureCursor.NextFeature();
}
// Create the polygon that will be the union of the features returned from the search cursor. 
// The spatial reference of this feature does not need to be set ahead of time. The 
// ConstructUnion method defines the constructed polygon's spatial reference to be the same as 
// the input geometry bag.
ITopologicalOperator unionedPolygon = new PolygonClass(); 
unionedPolygon.ConstructUnion(geometryBag as IEnumGeometry);
return unionedPolygon as IPolygon;
} 

Points   一个点包括X、Y坐标,同时可以增加M、Z值及ID属性来扩展点的功能。   Multipoints   点的集合,多点组成Multipoint几何类型,使用multipoint对象实现了的IPointCollection接口可以访问所有的点元素,这些点同样可以拥有M、Z值及ID属性来获得更多的地理空间内涵。   下面列举一个例子,通过一个已知的polyline来定义一个新的multipart polyline。 以下为引用的内容:

public IPolyline ConstructMultiPartPolyline(IPolyline inputPolyline)
{ 
IGeometry outGeometry = new PolylineClass();
//Always associate new, top-level geometries with an appropriate spatial reference.
outGeometry.SpatialReference = inputPolyline.SpatialReference; 
IGeometryCollection geometryCollection = outGeometry as IGeometryCollection;
ISegmentCollection segmentCollection = inputPolyline as ISegmentCollection;
//Iterate over existing polyline segments using a segment enumerator. Chinaz^com 
IEnumSegment segments = segmentCollection.EnumSegments;
ISegment currentSegment;
int partIndex = 0;;
int segmentIndex = 0;;   
segments.Next(out currentSegment,ref partIndex, ref segmentIndex);
while(currentSegment != null)
{ 
ILine normal = new LineClass();
    //Geometry methods with _Query_ in their name expect to modify existing geometries. 
    //In this case, the QueryNormal method modifies an existing line
    //segment (normal) to be the normal vector to 
    //currentSegment at the specified location along currentSegment.
    currentSegment.QueryNormal(esriSegmentExtension.esriNoExtension, 0.5, true, currentSegment.Length / 3, normal); 
    //Since each normal vector is not connected to others, create a new path for each one. 
    ISegmentCollection newPath = new PathClass();
    object missing = Type.Missing;
    newPath.AddSegment(normal as ISegment, ref missing, ref missing); 
    //The spatial reference associated with geometryCollection will be assigned to all incoming paths and segments.
    geometryCollection.AddGeometry(newPath as IGeometry, ref missing, ref missing);
    segments.Next(out currentSegment,ref partIndex, ref segmentIndex); 
}
//The geometryCollection now contains the new, multipart polyline.
return geometryCollection as IPolyline;

} ISegment接口的QueryNormal方法用来在弧段上的某一点生成该弧段的法线,指定其长度,这样就生成了新的segment,并且多个path添加到geometryCollection中,以IPolyline的形式返回。   Polylines   Polylines是有序path组成的集合,可以拥有M、Z和ID属性值。Polyline对象的IPointCollection接口包含了所有节点的复制,IGeometryCollection接口可以获取polyline的paths,ISegmentCollection接口可以获取 polyline的segments。
  Polyline结构图   Polygons   Polygon是一系列rings组成的集合,可以拥有M、Z和ID属性值。每一个ring由一个或多个segment组成,Polygon或ring对象的IPointCollection接口包含了所有节点的复制,IGeometryCollection接口可以获取polygon的rings, ISegmentCollection接口可以获取polygon的segments。   Polygon结构图   Multipatch   Multipatch用于描述3D面状几何类型,由一系列的矢量三角形构成,如果其中的part是一个ring,那么它必须是封闭的,第一个节点和最后一个节点相同,另外每个part所包含节点的顺序非常重要,Inner Rings在Outer Rings之后,代表单个表面patch的一系列rings必须由第一个ring开始。   在9.0以后的开发包中,使用IGeneralMultiPatchCreator创建新的Multipatch,IGeometryMaterial进行材质贴图。 以下为引用的内容:

public IMultiPatch CreateMultipatch()
{ 
//Prepare the geometry material list.
IGeometryMaterial texture = new GeometryMaterialClass();
texture.TextureImage = "C:\\Temp\\MyImage.bmp";

IGeometryMaterialList materialList = new GeometryMaterialListClass();
materialList.AddMaterial(texture);
//Create the multipatch.
IGeneralMultiPatchCreator multiPatchCreator = new GeneralMultiPatchCreatorClass(); 
multiPatchCreator.Init(4, 1, false, false, false, 4, materialList);
//Set up part.
//Could also use a Ring or a TriangleFan.
multiPatchCreator.SetPatchType(0, esriPatchType.esriPatchTypeTriangleStrip);
multiPatchCreator.SetMaterialIndex(0, 0);
multiPatchCreator.SetPatchPointIndex(0, 0);
multiPatchCreator.SetPatchTexturePointIndex(0, 0); 
//Set real-world points.
WKSPointZ upperLeft  = new WKSPointZ();
WKSPointZ lowerLeft  = new WKSPointZ();
WKSPointZ upperRight = new WKSPointZ(); 
WKSPointZ lowerRight = new WKSPointZ();
upperLeft.X = 0;
upperLeft.Y = 0;
upperLeft.Z = 0; 
upperRight.X = 300;
upperRight.Y = 0;
upperRight.Z = 0;
lowerLeft.X = 0; 
lowerLeft.Y = 0;
lowerLeft.Z = -100;
lowerRight.X = 300;
lowerRight.Y = 1; 
lowerRight.Z = -100;
multiPatchCreator.SetWKSPointZ(0, ref upperRight);
multiPatchCreator.SetWKSPointZ(1, ref lowerRight);
multiPatchCreator.SetWKSPointZ(2, ref upperLeft); 
multiPatchCreator.SetWKSPointZ(3, ref lowerLeft);
//Set texture points.
//Set the texture coordinates for a panel.
WKSPoint textureUpperLeft  = new WKSPoint(); 
WKSPoint textureLowerLeft  = new WKSPoint();
WKSPoint textureUpperRight = new WKSPoint();
WKSPoint textureLowerRight = new WKSPoint();
textureUpperLeft.X = 0; 
textureUpperLeft.Y = 0;
textureUpperRight.X = 1;
textureUpperRight.Y = 0;
textureLowerLeft.X = 0; 
textureLowerLeft.Y = 1;
textureLowerRight.X = 1;
textureLowerRight.Y = 1;
multiPatchCreator.SetTextureWKSPoint(0, ref textureUpperRight);
multiPatchCreator.SetTextureWKSPoint(1, ref textureLowerRight);
multiPatchCreator.SetTextureWKSPoint(2, ref textureUpperLeft);
multiPatchCreator.SetTextureWKSPoint(3, ref textureLowerLeft);
IMultiPatch multiPatch = multiPatchCreator.CreateMultiPatch() as IMultiPatch; 
return multiPatch;
}
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